Embryological Aspects of Genotype Characterization of Triticale Reproductive Potential
Coordinator: Prof Nada Šumatić, PhD
The project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Srpska
Time Implementation: 2009-2010
Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is an interspecies hybrid of genomic constitution AABBRR made by the crossing between the species belonging to the genes Triticum L. and Secale L (Gustafson, 1976)
In its genomic constitution triticale can be octoploid (2n = 56 = AABBDDRR) or hexaploid (2n = 42 AABBRR). On field the most common cultivars of triticale are hexaploids.
The grain formation is the end result of life cycle. Yield increase is conditioned with genetic and agronomic improvements, with growing high – yielding cultivars and applying the appropriate agricultural practices which reduce the impact of the limiting factors in production (Specht and Greaf, 1996)
Being the result of embryogenesis, triticale productivity is functionally connected with ecophysiological factors of the habitats. Therefore histological and embryological processes of normal development of endosperm tissue are key questions for cytogenetic approach to the selection on the level of genotype specificity in the forming of productivity and development of endosperm.
The main objective of these researches is the examination of the cell growth processes and development as well as tissue growth and development which have the key role in formation and realization of reproductive potential. Namely, the biggest cytogenetic problem for full productivity of triticale is the termination of endosperm development and occurrence of empty grain – grain without endosperms. Because of that, as a special approach in researches, we are interested in the differentiation of endosperm tissue which is going to be observed and led to the level of the target tissue in defining genotype differentiation of agricultural practices in grain production.